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Tuesday, 18 October 2016

Engineering Hydrology- Model question paper for B.E/B.Tech Civil engineering

1(a) Describe the hydrologic cycle. Explain briefly the man’s interference in various parts of this cycle. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain the different methods of determining the average rainfall over a catchment due to a storm. Discuss the relative merits and demerits of the various methods. (06 Marks)
(c) What is meant by Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over a basin? Explain how PMP is estimated? (04 Marks)
(d) Analysis of data on maximum one day rainfall depth at Chennai indicated that a depth of 280 mm had a return period of 50 years. Determine the probability of a one day rainfall depth equal to or greater than 280 mm at Chennai occurring (a) once in 20 successive years, (b) two times in 15 successive years, and (c) at least once in 20 successive years. (04 Marks)
2(a) Explain a procedure for fitting Horton’s infiltration equation for experimental data from a given plot. (06 Marks)
(b) List the various data needed to use Penman’s equation for estimating the potential evapotranspiration from a given area. (04 Marks)
(c) Discuss the importance of evaporation control of reservoirs and possible methods of achieving the same. (06 Marks)
(d) In a 140-min storm, the following rates of rainfall were observed in successive 20-min intervals: 6.0, 6.0, 18.0, 13.0, 2.0, 2.0 and 12.0 mm/h. Assuming the φ-index value as 3.0 mm/h and an initial loss of 0.8 mm, determine the total rainfall, net runoff and W-index for the storm. (04 Marks)
3(a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following relative to the flow measurement by using current meters:
(i) Electromagnetic method        (ii) Ultrasound method. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain the procedure for obtaining the stage-discharge relationship of a stream by using the stage-discharge data from a site with permanent control. (06 Marks)
(c) Describe briefly the moving boat method of stream flow measurement. (04 Marks)
(d) It is proposed to adopt the dilution method of stream gauging for a river whose hydraulic properties at average flow are as follows:
Width = 45 m, Depth = 2 m, Discharge = 85 m3/s, Chezy coefficient = 20 to 30. Determine the safe mixing length that has to be adopted for this stream. (04 Marks)
4(a) What is a hydrological drought? What are its components and their possible effects? (06 Marks)
(b) Distinguish between yield and surface water resources potential of a basin having substantial water resources development for meeting irrigation, domestic and industrial needs within the basin. (06 Marks)
(c) Describe briefly the SCS-CN method of estimation yield of a catchment through use of daily rainfall record. (04 Marks)
(d) A reservoir is located in a region where the normal annual precipitation is 160 cm and the normal annual US class A pan evaporation is 200 cm. The average area of reservoir water surface is 75 km2. If under conditions of 35% of the rainfall on the land occupied by the reservoir runoff into the stream, estimate the net annual increase or decrease in the stream flow as result of the reservoir. Assume evaporation pan coefficient = 0.70. (04 Marks)
5(a) Why is base flow separated from the flood hydrograph in the process of developing a unit hydrograph? (04 Marks)
(b) Describe the S-curve method of developing a 6-h UH by using 12-h UH of the catchment. (04 Marks)
(c) The 6-hour unit hydrograph of a catchment is triangular in shape with a base width of 64 hours and a peak ordinate of 30 m3/s. Calculate the equilibrium discharge of the S6 – curve of the basin. (06 Marks)
(d) The 6-hour unit hydrograph of a basin is triangular in shape with a peak of 100 m3/s occurring at 24-h from the start. The base is 72-h.
(i) What is the area of the catchment represented by this unit hydrograph?
(ii) Calculate the flood hydrograph due to a storm of rainfall excess of 2.0 cm during the first 6 hours and 4.0 cm during the second 6 hours interval. The base flow can be assumed to be 25 m3/s constant throughout. (06 Marks)
6(a) Annual flood series having N consecutive entries are available for a catchment. Describe a procedure to verify whether the data follow Gumbel’s distribution. (06 Marks)
(b) Describe a numerical method of hydrologic reservoir routing. (04 Marks)
(c) Describe the Muskingum method of flood routing an inflow hydrograph through a channel reach. Assume the values of coefficients K and x for the reach are known. (06 Marks)
(d) A rectangular parking lot is 150m wide and 300m long. The time of overland flow across the pavement to the longitudinal gutter along the center is 20 minutes and the estimated total tome of concentration to the downstream end of the gutter is 25 minutes. The coefficient of runoff is 0.92. If a rainfall of intensity 6 cm/h falls on the lot for 10 minutes and stops abruptly, determine the peak rate flow. (04 Marks)
7(a) Explain the behaviour of water level in wells in confined aquifers due to changes in the atmospheric pressure. (04 Marks)
(b) Describe a procedure by using Jacob’s method to calculate the aquifer parameters of a confine aquifer by using the well pumping test data. (06 Marks)
(c) What are Dupit’s assumptions? (04 Marks)
(d) A 30-cm well completely penetrates an artesian aquifer. The length of the strainer is 25m. Determine the discharge from the well when the drawdown at the pumping well is 4.0m. The coefficient of permeability of the aquifer is 345 m/day. Assume the radius of the well as 350m. (06 Marks)
8(a) What is meant by Trap Efficiency of a reservoir? What factors influence its value? (04 Marks)
(b) Explain the area-increment method of determining the sedimental distribution in a reservoir. (06 Marks)
(c) Distinguish between USLE and MUSLE? (06 Marks)
(d) A reservoir sediment is estimated through use of Koezler equation to have average unit weight of 1100 kg/m3 at the end of 35 years and 1120 kg/m3 at the end of 50 years. Estimate the average unit weight at the end of first year of deposit and at the end of 100 years. (04 Marks)

Friday, 14 October 2016

Fluid Mechanics- Model question paper for B.E/B.Tech Mechanical Engineering

1(a) Mention any 4 properties of a fluid. (04 Marks)
(b) With a neat sketch, explain the working of differential U-tube manometer. (06 Marks)
(c) A square lamina of side 0.6 m is immersed in water with one of its diagonal horizontal to the surface of water and the top corner point is 0.6 m below the free surface of water. Calculate the force on one side of the lamina and the location of centre of pressure. (06 Marks)
(d) Two circular discs of diameter of 200 mm are mounted coaxially and the gap of 0.13 mm between the plates is filled a viscous liquid (viscosity 0.14 Pa.s). Calculate the torque necessary to rotate one disc relative to other at a uniform speed of 7 rev/s. (04 Marks)
2(a) What are streamline, pathline and streak line? Write equations. (06 Marks)
(b) A stream function for a two dimensional flow field is expressed by an equation ψ = 3x + 4y + 2x2 – 2y2. Determine the corresponding velocity potential function. (04 Marks)
(c) Explain briefly the principle of superposition and show how it can be used to analyze the flow over arbitrary shaped bodies. (06 Marks)
(d) A 5 cm × 3 cm venturimeter placed at an angle of 300 with the horizontal carries a liquid of specific gravity of 0.80. The deflection of a differential mercury manometer shows deflection of 10 cm for a particular flow rate. Estimate the flow rate. Take coefficient of discharge of the venturimeter as 0.96. (04 Marks)
3(a) Explain Reynolds transport theorem. (06 Marks)
(b) A small hydropower plant operates under 100 m of head and using 30 m3/s of water to produce electric power. Head loss due to friction from inlet to exit is 20 m. Estimate the power extracted by the turbine if it discharges water at 2 m/s into the atmosphere at its exit. (04 Marks)
(c) Explain the properties of stress tensor. ( 06 Marks)
(d) Explain the terms vorticity and circulation. (04 Marks)
4(a) Write continuity equation, equations of motion and energy equation in spherical coordinates. (05 Marks)
(b) Prove that in an annulus pipe, stresses are positive at the walls. (07 Marks)
(c) Derive Hagen-Poiesuille equation for the flow through a circular pipe. (08 Marks)
5(a) Explain Ossen approximation. (06 Marks)
(b) Explain the properties of boundary layer equation. (06 Maerks)
(c) Show that in a two dimensional creeping flow, the stream function obeys the biharmonic equation. (04 Marks)
(d) What is the head loss in meters of water in a 300 m long smooth 10 cm diameter pipe carrying 0.1 m3/s of water at 200C. Use Blausius formula for calculating friction factor. (04 Marks)
6(a) Write a short note on flow over bluff bodies. (04 Marks)
(b) Distinguish between Boussinesq hypothesis and Prandtl’s mixing length hypothesis. (08 Marks)
(c) Define Mach number. What are zone of action and zone of silence? (04 Marks)
(d) Estimate the velocity and Mach number of a projectile which reflects a shock wave of angle 300 in air at pressure of 0.95 kg/cm2 at a temperature of 30C. (04 Marks)
7(a) Explain Buckingham π-theorem. (04 Marks)
(b) As per Stoke’s law, the terminal velocity V of a small sphere of density ρs and diameter D depends on the density of the liquid ρf, dynamic viscosity µ and acceleration due to gravity g. Express the functional relationship between the variables in a dimensionless form. (06 Marks)
(c) What are the assumptions made during the internal estimate of the error? (04 Marks)
(d) A 1:50 scale model of a boat has a wave resistance of 0.02 N when operating in water at 1 m/s. Find the corresponding prototype resistance. Find also the horsepower required for the prototype. What velocity does this test represent in the prototype? (06 Marks)
8(a) Using a neat sketch, explain the working of Laser Doppler Anemometer. (08 Marks)
(b) Reynolds stress model is a seven-equation model and is well suited for fluid flow analysis through complex geometries. Explain. (04 Marks)
(c) What purpose Nacelle and gearbox serves in a wind turbine? (04 Marks)
(d) Mention some disadvantages of hydropower. (04 Marks)

Thursday, 13 October 2016

Material Science and Engineering- Model question paper for B.E/B.Tech Mechanical Engineering

1(a) You would like to design an aircraft that can be flown by human power nonstop for a distance of 30 km. What types of material properties would you recommend? What materials might be appropriate? (06 Marks)
(b) Explain why modulus of elasticity of simple thermoplastic polymers, such as polyethylene and polystyrene, is expected to be very low compared with that of metals and ceramics? (04 Marks)
(c) What is polymorphism? What are the different polymorphs of carbon? (06 Marks)
(d) What are Miller indices? Sketch (110) and (221) planes in a cubic lattice. (04 Marks)
2(a) Explain the term strain hardening. (04 Marks)
(b) Amorphous PET is more permeable to CO2 than PET that contains micro-crystallites. Explain why? (06 Marks)
(c) Explain Fick’s first law of diffusion. (06 Marks)
(d) A Niobium alloy is produced by introducing tungsten substitutional atoms in the BCC structure; eventually an alloy is produced that has a lattice parameter 0.32554 nm and a density of 11.95 g/cm3. Calculate the fraction of the atoms in the alloy that are tungsten. (04 Marks)
3(a) How is tensile toughness defined in relation to the true stress-strain diagram? How is tensile toughness related to impact toughness? (06 Marks)
(b) FCC metals are often recommended for use at low temperatures, particularly when any sudden loading of the part is expected. Explain why. (04 Marks)
(c) Write down the formulas for calculating the stress and strain for a sample subjected to a tensile test. Assume the sample shows necking. (06 Marks)
(d) When a 3000 kg load is applied to a 10 mm diameter ball in a Brinell test of a steel, an indentation of 3.1 mm is produced. Estimate the tensile strength of the steel. (04 Marks)
4(a) What is the difference between failure of a material by creep and that by stress rupture? (06 Marks)
(b) The amount of plastic deformation that can be performed during hot working is almost unlimited.  Justify this statement. (04 Marks)
(c) Metals like Magnesium cannot be effectively strengthened using cold working. Explain why. (06 Marks)
(d) A polymer that contains internal flaws 1 mm in length fails at a stress of 25 MPa. Determine the plane strain fracture toughness of the polymer. Assume that f =1. (04 Marks)
5(a) What is the difference between fusion welding, brazing and soldering? (06 Marks)
(b)What is ABS copolymer? State some of the applications of this material. (04 Marks)
(c) Briefly state the Hume-Rothery rules and explain the rationale. (06 Marks)
(d) A 10 cm cube of a liquid metal is allowed to solidify. A spherical shrinkage cavity with a diameter of 3.725 cm is observed in the solid casting. Determine the percent volume change that occurs during solidification. (04 Marks)
6(a) Why does the martensite phase not appear on the Fe-Fe 3C phase diagram? (04 Marks)
(b) What is a supersaturated solution? How do we obtain supersaturated solutions during precipitation hardening? Why is the formation of a supersaturated solution necessary? (06 Marks)
(c) Design a corrosion-resistant steel to use for a pump that transports liquid Helium at 4 K in a superconducting magnet. (06 Marks)
(d) A 1030 steel is given an improper quench and temper heat treatment, producing a final structure composed of 60% martensite and 40% ferrite. Estimate the carbon content of the martensite and the austenitizing temperature that was used. What austenitizing temperature would you recommend? (04 Marks)
7(a) Design a nickel-titanium alloy that will produce 60 volume percent Ni3Ti precipitate in a pure nickel matrix. (06 Marks)
(b) What are linear and branched polymers? Can thermoplastics be branched? (06 Marks)
(c) Explain the terms crazing and blushing. (04 Marks)
(d) Calculate the degree of polymerization if 6,6 nylon has a molecular weight of 120,000 g/mol. (04 Marks)
8(a) Draw and explain a typical heat-treatment profile encountered in processing of glass-ceramics. (06 Marks)
(b) Can ceramic materials show superplastic behaviour or are they always brittle? Explain. (04 Marks)
(c) Explain briefly in what sporting equipment composite materials are used? What is the main reason why composites are used in these applications? (06 Marks)
(d) A 0.01 cm thick sheet of a polymer with a modulus of elasticity 4800 MPa is sandwiched between two 4 mm thick sheets of glass with a modulus of elasticity of 83000 MPa. Calculate the modulus of elasticity

of the composite parallel and perpendicular to the sheets. (04 Marks)

Biochemistry-Model question paper for MBBS

1(a) Explain the consequence and role of compartmentation of enzymes. (06 Marks)
(b) Write the open chain structures for (a) D-gluconic acid and (b) D-glucoronic acid. (06 Marks)
(c) There are two possible chair conformers of beta-D-glucopyranose. How many boat conformers are possible? (04 Marks)
(d) The specific rotation of maltose in water is +138 degrees. What would be the concentration of a maltose solution that had an optical rotation of +23 degrees if a polarimeter tube 10 cm long was used? (04 Marks)
2(a) Calculate the isoelectric point of (a) arginine and (b) histidine. (06 Marks)
(b) What are the reasons for the marked stability of an alpha helix? (06 Marks)
(c) What is meant by the statement that a particular conformation of an amino acid residue lies in an unfavourable region of the Ramachandran plot? (04 Marks)
(d) Theronine constitutes 1.8% by weight of the amino acid content of insulin. Given that the molecular weight of theronine is 119, what is the minimum molecular weight of Insulin? (04 marks)
3(a) Why is the triple helix of collagen a better structure for providing tensile strength than the alpha helix? (04 Marks)
(b) The identification of the type and subtype of intermediate filament help in the diagnosis and classification of cancer. Explain. (06 Marks)
(c) How many different molecules of triacylglycerol can be made from glycerol and four different fatty acids? (06 Marks)
(d) The pH of the gastric juice is 1. The cells that produce gastric juice have an internal pH of 7. Calculate the ΔG for transport of protons from these cells into the stomach at 37 degree Celsius temperature. Given R = 8.3 J/mol.K. (04 Marks)
4(a) What feature of the amino acid composition of histones enables them to interact strongly with DNA? (04 Marks)
(b) Why does messenger RNA have the most heterogeneous base sequences of the major forms of RNA present in the cytoplasm of a cell? (04 Marks)
(c) What is the basic difference between the reaction catalyzed by (a) a mutase enzyme and that catalyzed by an isomerase; (b) an oxidase, an oxygenase, and the reverse reaction of a reductase? Give examples. (08 Marks)
(d) Give some examples of enzymes that are smaller than their substrates. (04 Marks)
5(a) How does varying the substrate concentration relative to the enzyme concentration affect the validity of the steady-state assumption and the applicability of the Michaelis-Menten expression? (06 Marks)
(b) Prove that the sum of the control strengths of all enzymes in a linear sequence of reaction is 1. (06 marks)
(c) Write a brief note on the role of ATP in bioenergetics. (04 Marks)
(d) Calculate the mean activity coefficient in a solution of 0.25 mol L-1Na3PO4. (04 Marks)
6(a) How is the concentration of the glucose in the blood maintained (a) during rest after a carbohydrate–rich meal and (b) during prolonged exercise? (04 marks)
(b) Termites exist almost entirely on a diet of cellulose. How is the cellulose degraded by the termites to carbohydrates, which can be used as an energy source. (06 Marks)
(c) If a protein inhibitor of succinyl-CoA synthetase is applied to liver cells and germinating plant cells, what effect would this have on energy production and the synthesis of carbohydrate in both types of cell? (06 Marks)
(d) Calculate the number of molecules of ATP that can be produced by substrate-level phosphorylation of ADP from two molecules of acetyl-CoA in the (a) citric acid cycle and (b) glyoxylate cycle. (04 Marks)
7(a) What effect would a deficiency of carnitine palmitoytransferase in skeletal muscle have on the ability of a person to perform prolonged exercise? (06 Marks)
(b) Why does feeding compounds that act as methyl-group donors to patients with fatty liver alleviate the condition?  (04 Marks)
(c) How is it possible to distinguish between the different cytochromes in the electron-transport chain? (06 Marks)
(d) Given that the internal pH of a mitochondrion is 7.8, and assuming that a mitochondrion has a volume the same as the sphere of diameter 1.4×10-6 m, calculate the number of protons inside the mitochondrion. (04 Marks)
8(a) Glutamine from the diet and from muscle during fasting can be converted into alanine in the intestine. Which enzymes are involved in this conversion? (04 Marks)
(b) What feature of circular, double-helical DNA is essential for it to function as a vector for DNA cloning? (04 Marks)
(c) Decode the following RNA sequence into the corresponding amino acid sequence:
(d) What is the difference between a repressor and a corepressor in relation to transcription? (06 Marks)